|Kelsey Bruno holds an iron implement she just excavated.|
Additional evidence for mill-era activity on the summit of the terrace where the mission had been located is also abundant as in previous years, including near-surface scatters of brick fragments, slag, charcoal, iron nails and other fragments, and late 19th-century glass and ceramics.
|Bromo-Seltzer medicine bottle made in Baltimore between 1891-1907.|
|Brass fitting or fastener with decorative design on one side.|
Three 1x2 m excavation units in the mission area of the terrace summit made good progress this week, including one unit that was begun in 2014 and will be finished this year with the excavation of its base into sterile clay subsoil beneath an unusual clay-lined pit feature that appears to date to the sawmill period, but which falls in line with a series of three posts just to the west that we believe might be a mission-era structure wall, perhaps even the long sought-after church. Ongoing excavations in two units to the north have been laid in along the predicted southern and eastern wall lines of a possible Apalachee circular residential structure with a clay floor and hearth feature found last year (along with a possible roof-support post nearby). These units are both capped to some extent by what now appear to be post-mission-era clay deposits, one of which is currently theorized to have been a logging skidway with two parallel trenches and evenly-spaced trenches traversing it, resulting from the placement of round logs in the ground to assist in the dragging of felled trees across the ground to the sawmill (perhaps the early 19th-century sawmill operated at some distance west by Thomas Cooper). When the skid road was replaced by a short railroad line in the Reconstruction era, the logs seem to have been removed and the entire roadway covered with a layer of hard yellow clay to fill in the trenches. Later, another layer of mottled gray clay was also deposited over and around the roadway in this vicinity, and the amount of charcoal, slag, coal, and small brick fragments here might possibly represent the location of the blacksmith's shop documented for Molino Mills, or it could also be associated with the railroad engine that transported wood to the main rail line to the east. Pictures of these clay deposits are below.
|Emma Dietrich excavates the northern edge of the yellow clay that intrudes on mission deposits here.|
|Clear stratigraphic relationship between dark modern humus, mottled gray clay below, and brown mission-era midden deposit below that.|
Underneath these clay deposits are the intact 18th-century midden deposit associated with the possible Apalachee structure. Students found several rimsherds of Mission Red pottery in one of these units this week, as well as an intact but battered small honey-colored chert gunflint (all pictured below). Within a few days we hope to begin seeing whether there are postholes extending below this midden representing the predicted wall line of the Apalachee structure surrounding the hearth found last year.
|"French-style" gunflint, probably pistol sized.|
|Rounded rimsherd of a Mission Red vessel, painted on both sides.|
|Flattened rimsherd of a different Mission Red vessel, also red on both sides.|
Below are additional photos of fieldwork since our last blog update. Stay tuned for more as we make further progress in Week 3.
|Olivia shovel-shaves the midden at the floor of her level.|
|Darby works on cleaning up the base of the unit begun in 2014.|
|Jodi and Emma team up to sift.|
|Darby holds the stadia rod to take elevations; Jodi in background.|
|Tyler shovel-shaves sawmill-era deposits in her unit.|
|Kayla works to square up the base and walls of her shovel test at the base of the bluff.|